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अथ पतञ्जलयोगसूत्रे साधनपादः द्वितीयः
atha patañjalayogasūtre sādhanapādaḥ dvitīyaḥ
Herein from the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali:
Chapter 2 “On How To Bring Together”
In order to practise being whole, an inner fire, constant study, and a devotion to things spiritual are required.
The purpose of such a practice is to reduce difficulties and help bring about realization.
The difficulties which hinder are: not-knowing, participating in being, strong drives, strong dislikes, and the clinging-to-life-and-avoidance-of-death.
अविद्या क्षेत्रमुत्तरेषां प्रसुप्ततनुविच्छिन्नोदाराणाम्॥४॥
Avidyā kṣetramuttareṣāṁ prasuptatanuvicchinnodārāṇām
Not-realizing is the breeding-ground for the others, whether they are latent, just beginning to be manifested, fluctuating, or fully active.
Through not-understanding the transient, the impure, the painful, and the non-holy appear permanent, pure, pleasurable and holy.
Participating-in-being allows the mind’s ability to see to be confused with the activity of seeing itself.
Pleasurable things create strong attachments.
Painful experiences give rise to dislikes.
स्वरसवाही विदुषोऽपि तथारूढोऽभिनिवेशः॥९॥
Svarasavāhī viduṣo’pi tathārūḍho’bhiniveśaḥ
The attachment-to-life-and-fear-of-death is like a well-worn river that flows even in the most wise.
ते प्रतिप्रसवहेयाः सूक्ष्माः॥१०॥
Te pratiprasavaheyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ
All these can be countered by reducing them to their most basic constituents.
These movements can be excised through meditation.
क्लेशमूलः कर्माशयो दृष्टादृष्टजन्मवेदनीयः॥१२॥
Kleśamūlaḥ karmāśayo dṛṣṭādṛṣṭajanmavedanīyaḥ
The difficulties are the origin, actions and consequences the vehicle, of experience occurring in lived and unlived lives.
सति मूले तद्विपाको जात्यायुर्भोगाः॥१३॥
Sati mūle tadvipāko jātyāyurbhogāḥ
As long as these roots exist they result in different kinds of life, of different lengths, and with different experiences.
ते ह्लादपरितापफलाः पुण्यापुण्यहेतुत्वात्॥१४॥
Te hlādaparitāpaphalāḥ puṇyāpuṇyahetutvāt
They result in pleasure or pain according to whether the roots are due to virtuous or unvirtuous practices.
परिणामतापसंस्कारदुःखैर्गुणवृत्तिविरोधाच्च दुःखमेव सर्वं विवेकिनः॥१५॥
Pariṇāmatāpasaṁskāraduḥkhairguṇavṛttivirodhācca duḥkhameva sarvaṁ vivekinaḥ
Those who can tell know that all pain and suffering is due to changes, anxieties, deep-seated root-causes, and also to the difficulties caused by the admixture of the apparently real world.
Those troubles that are yet to come are to be avoided.
द्रष्टृदृश्ययोः संयोगो हेयहेतुः॥१७॥
Draṣṭṛdṛśyayoḥ saṁyogo heyahetuḥ
The cause of those things that are to be avoided is the identification of that which sees with that which Sees.
प्रकाशक्रियास्थितिशीलं भूतेन्द्रियात्मकं भोगापवर्गार्थं दृश्यम्॥१८॥
Prakāśakriyāsthitiśīlaṁ bhūtendriyātmakaṁ bhogāpavargārthaṁ dṛśyam
Those things that can be seen or experienced have perceptibility, motion and inertia. They are made up of both elements and awareness. The reason for their existence is experience and liberation.
The different states of these things are: the general and the particular, that which already exists, and that which is potential.
द्रष्टा दृशिमात्रः शुद्धोऽपि प्रत्ययानुपश्यः॥२०॥
Draṣṭā dṛśimātraḥ śuddho’pi pratyayānupaśyaḥ
The Seer is whole and made of full awareness. Even though completely pure, it appears to participate in what is seen.
तदर्थ एव दृश्यस्यात्मा॥२१॥
Tadartha eva dṛśyasyātmā
The Seer is the sole reason for the existence of that which is seen.
कृतार्थं प्रति नष्टमप्यनष्टं तदन्यसाधारणत्वात्॥२२॥
Kṛtārthaṁ prati naṣṭamapyanaṣṭaṁ tadanyasādhāraṇatvāt
Although this world is as dead to those who have successfully completed the practice, it is still held in common by those who have not.
स्वस्वामिशक्त्योः स्वरूपोपलब्धिहेतुः संयोगः॥२३॥
Svasvāmiśaktyoḥ svarūpopalabdhihetuḥ saṁyogaḥ
The real purpose of this confusion is to allow recognition of the true nature of the force behind both the knower and that which is known.
The cause of this isnot-realizing.
तदभावात्संयोगाभावो हानं तद्दृशेः कैवल्यम्॥२५॥
Tadabhāvātsaṁyogābhāvo hānaṁ taddṛśeḥ kaivalyam
When this ignorance ends and con-fusion ceasesthen comes the freedom of the Seer.
It is destroyed by the constant practice of the most discerning wisdom.
तस्य सप्तधा प्रान्तभूमिः प्रज्ञा॥२७॥
Tasya saptadhā prāntabhūmiḥ prajñā
The unfolding of this wisdom is sevenfold.
Through practice of the various disciplines that make a person restored to wholeness, all that is impure is destroyed, and the ability to tell what is really real flowers into the light of pure knowing.
The eight steps to be taken to become restored are: right living; observing the duties; right being; the furtherance of Life; the avoidance of all that distracts or deflects; holding fast to what is truth; becoming merged with this reality; total permeation and identification with and by this realization.
Right living consists of: becoming nonviolent; the assertion of truth; not taking things that have not been given; communion with God; non-holding on to things.
जातिदेशकालसमयानवच्छिन्नाः सार्वभौमा महाव्रतम्॥३१॥
Jātideśakālasamayānavacchinnāḥ sārvabhaumā mahāvratam
These are the great uncompromisable ordinances irrespective of race, country, time or circumstance.
Purity, contentment, discipline, constant study, and devotion to the spiritual are the duties to be observed.
When the mind is disturbed by negative thoughts, opposite ones should be contemplated.
वितर्का हिंसादयः कृतकारितानुमोदिता लोभक्रोधमोहपूर्वका मृदुमध्याधिमात्रा दुःखाज्ञानानन्तफला इति प्रतिपक्षभावनम्॥३४॥
Vitarkā hiṁsādayaḥ kṛtakāritānumoditā lobhakrodhamohapūrvakā mṛdumadhyādhimātrā duḥkhājñānānantaphalā iti pratipakṣabhāvanam
Negative thoughts are thoughts of violence and so forth. They are grounded in greed, anger and hatred, whether they are mild, middling or intense, irrespective of whether the acts are done, arranged to be done by others, or implicitly approved. They result in endless sorrow and destroy understanding. Their opposites should be cultivated.
अहिंसाप्रतिष्ठायां तत्सन्निधौ वैरत्यागः॥३५॥
Ahiṁsāpratiṣṭhāyāṁ tatsannidhau vairatyāgaḥ
All violence ceases in the presence of those who practise nonviolence correctly.
Once truth-assertion is firmly established the desired result of a given act inevitably follows.
Through the devoted practice of not taking things, the greatest treasures are made manifest.
Through communion with God, one becomes truly strong.
Knowledge of the beginning and end of all past and present being comes through the continued correct practice of not holding on to things.
Through a devotion to purity there arises a turning away from the flesh, and all that is merely flesh or lowly in others is similarly discounted.
When the highest qualities are purified, there comes security of mind, unwavering attention, conquest of the senses, and an ability to see the Seer.
It is being contented that brings the greatest joy.
Inner ardour or determination perfects the body and the senses, and also destroys impurities.
Constant study leads to an ability to commune with beings of holiness.
Perfection and liberation come through surrendering one’s self to God.
That attitude or form of being that brings the joy and that it is possible to maintain is ‘right being’.
When correctly followed it is infinitely transforming and brings endless release.
Then one is never plagued by contradictory forces.
तस्मिन्सति श्वासप्रश्वासयोर्गतिविच्छेदः प्राणायामः॥४९॥
Tasminsati śvāsapraśvāsayorgativicchedaḥ prāṇāyāmaḥ
When it has been perfected, control over the movements of life follows. This is control over the taking in, the giving forth, and the holding still of the energies of being.
वाह्याभ्यन्तरस्तम्भवृत्तिः देशकालसङ्ख्याभिः परिदृष्टो दीर्घसूक्ष्मः॥५०॥
Vāhyābhyantarastambhavṛttirdeśakālasaṅkhyābhiḥ paridṛṣṭo dīrghasūkṣmaḥ
The different types of this control are to surrender it up, to draw it in, or to hold it completely still, for different times, and in different stages and quantities. In this way it becomes long and subtle.
The fourth kind of control is to transcend the boundaries of inner and outer.
ततः क्षीयते प्रकाशावरणम्॥५२॥
Tataḥ kṣīyate prakāśāvaraṇam
By this the dust that covers the light is wiped away.
धारणासु च योग्यता मनसः॥५३॥
Dhāraṇāsu ca yogyatā manasaḥ
And the mind becomes one that is able to cling tightly to the Truth.
स्वविषयासम्प्रयोगे चित्तस्य स्वरूपानुकार इवेन्द्रियाणां प्रत्याहारः॥५४॥
Svaviṣayāsamprayoge cittasya svarūpānukāra ivendriyāṇāṁ pratyāhāraḥ
Withdrawal of the senses is where objects are not allowed to stir the mind at all, and it follows, rather, after its own nature.
ततः परमा वश्यतेन्द्रियाणाम्॥५५॥
Tataḥ paramā vaśyatendriyāṇām
Then one has complete control over the means of becoming aware.
इति पतञ्जलयोगसूत्रे साधनपादः द्वितीयः समाप्थः
iti patañjalayogasūtre sādhanapādaḥ dvitīyaḥ samāptaḥ
Here lies Chapter 2, “On How To Bring Together”,
in the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali