Chapter I
पतञ्जलयोगसूत्रानि
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali

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अथ योगमनोविज्ञानदार्शनम्

atha yogamanovijñānadārśanam

Here follows the revelation of the wisdom that is yoga

अथ पतञ्जलयोगसूत्रे समाधिपादः प्रथमः

atha patañjalayogasūtre samādhipādaḥ prathamaḥ

Herein from the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali:
Chapter 1 “On Bringing Into Harmony”

[I:1]

अथ योगानुशासनम्॥१॥

Atha yogānuśāsanam

Here follow guidelines on how to be remade whole.

[I:2]

योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः॥२॥

Yogaścittavṛttinirodhaḥ

Wholeness consists of a complete grasp and command over the process of being and becoming aware.

[I:3]

तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम्॥३॥

Tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe’vasthānam

Then the one who Sees, sees themselves as they really are.

[I:4]

वृत्तिसारूप्यमितरत्र॥४॥

Vṛttisārūpyamitaratra

At other times there is participation in mental movements.

[I:5]

वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टा अक्लिष्टाश्चः॥५॥

Vṛttayaḥ pañcatayyaḥ kliṣṭā akliṣṭāśca

These movements are of five kinds and can be sources of contentment or discontent.

[I:6]

प्रमाणविपर्ययविकल्पनिद्रास्मृतयः॥६॥

Pramāṇaviparyayavikalpanidrāsmṛtayaḥ

They are: correct knowledge, incorrect knowledge, delusion, sleep and memory.

[I:7]

प्रत्यक्षानुमानागमाः प्रमाणानि॥७॥

Pratyakṣānumānāgamāḥ pramāṇāni

Correct knowledge comes about as a result of clear and direct perception, logical deduction, and the word of those who know.

[I:8]

विपर्ययो मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूपप्रतिष्ठम्॥८॥

Viparyayo mithyājñānamatadrūpapratiṣṭham

Incorrect knowledge is a false understanding not based on the true nature of what is perceived.

[I:9]

शब्दज्ञानानुपाती वस्तुशून्यो विकल्पः॥९॥

Śabdajñānānupātī vastuśūnyo vikalpaḥ

Imagining is where an idea is conveyed that has no basis in reality.

[I:10]

अभावप्रत्ययालम्बना वृत्तिर्निद्रा॥१०॥

Abhāvapratyayālambanā vṛttirnidrā

Sleep is the mental state which has no idea as its foundation.

[I:11]

अनुभूतविषयासम्प्रमोषः स्मृतिः॥११॥

Anubhūtaviṣayāsampramoṣaḥ smṛtiḥ

Memory is where things once experienced are not allowed to completely slip away.

[I:12]

अभ्यासवैराग्याभ्यां तन्निरोधः॥१२॥

Abhyāsavairāgyābhyāṁ tannirodhaḥ

Mastery over these movements comes through practice and through non-participation.

[I:13]

तत्र स्थितौ यत्नोऽभ्यासः॥१३॥

Tatra sthitau yatno’bhyāsaḥ

Practice is the ceaseless effort to remain steady in that state.

[I:14]

स तु दीर्घकालनैरन्तर्यसत्कारासेवितो दृढभूमिः॥१४॥

Sa tu dīrghakālanairantaryasatkārāsevito dṛḍhabhūmiḥ

Where practice is long, sincere, devoted, and done with care, then stability in maintaining comes.

[I:15]

दृष्टानुश्रविकविषयवितृष्णस्य वशीकारसञ्ज्ञा वैराग्यम्॥१५॥

Dṛṣṭānuśravikaviṣayavitṛṣṇasya vaśīkārasañjñā vairāgyam

Non-participation is a conscious awareness and mastery over mental movements created by objects, whether these are seen or heard spoken of.

[I:16]

तत्परं पुरुषख्यातेर्गुणवैतृष्ण्यम्॥१६॥

Tatparaṁ puruṣakhyāterguṇavaitṛṣṇyam

The ultimate result of it is a detachment from the constituents of earthly things. It is caused by an understanding of reality.

[I:17]

वितर्कविचारानन्दास्मितारूपानुगमात्सम्प्रज्ञातः॥१७॥

Vitarkavicārānandāsmitārūpānugamātsamprajñātaḥ

One kind of realization arises by means of reasoning, by means of an ability to distil what is wisdom, with real contentment, and with pure being.

[I:18]

विरामप्रत्ययाभ्यासपूर्वः संस्कारशेषोऽन्यः॥१८॥

Virāmapratyayābhyāsapūrvaḥ saṁskāraśeṣo’nyaḥ

Another kind occurs when due to constant efforts to sill them only the most hidden and latent tendencies to participate in mental movements remain.

[I:19]

भवप्रत्ययो विदेहप्रकृतिलयानाम्॥१९॥

Bhavapratyayo videhaprakṛtilayānām

For those in a state of pure being, or for those who have transcended existence, its genesis is coming into being.

[I:20]

श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृतिसमाधिप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम्॥२०॥

Śraddhāvīryasmṛtisamādhiprajñāpūrvaka itareṣām

Others can manage to attain this state of knowledge if they are devoted, determined, sufficiently reflective, and if they try to become truly wise.

[I:21]

तीव्रसंवेगानामासन्नः॥२१॥

Tīvrasaṁvegānāmāsannaḥ

Where there is the most intense energy, the end result soon comes.

[I:22]

मृदुमध्याधिमात्रत्वात्ततोऽपि विशेषः॥२२॥

Mṛdumadhyādhimātratvāttato’pi viśeṣaḥ

The type of effort made can be further distinguished into mild, middling, or intense.

[I:23]

ईश्वरप्रणिधानाद्वा॥२३॥

Īśvarapraṇidhānādvā

Or, one can devote one’s self completely to things spiritual.

[I:24]

क्लेशकर्मविपाकाशयैरपरामृष्टः पुरुषविशेष ईश्वरः॥२४॥

Kleśakarmavipākāśayairaparāmṛṣṭaḥ puruṣaviśeṣa īśvaraḥ

A holy or spiritual being or entity is a distinct vehicle of the ultimate reality. It is untouched by worldly cares or the consequences of this, and is never a carrier of life’s difficulties.

[I:25]

तत्र निरतिशयं सर्वज्ञबीजम्॥२५॥

Tatra niratiśayaṁ sarvajñabījam

In true holiness lies the seed of that total knowing which is limitless.

[I:26]

पूर्वेषामपि गुरुः कालेनानवच्छेदात्॥२६॥

Pūrveṣāmapi guruḥ kālenānavacchedāt

True holiness is timeless, eternal, and unconditioned. It is the earliest and greatest of teachers.

[I:27]

तस्य वाचकः प्रणवः॥२७॥

Tasya vācakaḥ praṇavaḥ

Its declaration is the Word.

[I:28]

तज्जपस्तदर्थभावनम्॥२८॥

Tajjapastadarthabhāvanam

It is to be repeated endlessly and its meaning reflected upon deeply and attentively.

[I:29]

ततः प्रत्यक्चेतनाधिगमोऽप्यन्तरायाभावश्च॥२९॥

Tataḥ pratyakcetanādhigamo’pyantarāyābhāvaśca

From this comes an inner spirituality that makes all life’s troubles nothing.

[I:30]

व्याधिस्त्यानसंशयप्रमादालस्याविरतिभ्रान्तिदर्शनालब्धभूमिकत्वा­नवस्थितत्वानि चित्तविक्षेपास्तेऽन्तरायाः॥३०॥

Vyādhistyānasaṁśayapramādālasyāviratibhrānti­darśanā­labdhabhūmikatvānavasthitatvāni cittavikṣepāste’­ntarāyāḥ

These are the obstacles causing disturbance to the mind: disease, lack of effort, doubt, loss of interest, inapplication, attraction to things physical, false perceptions, lack of concentration, inability to maintain any achievements gained.

[I:31]

दुःखदौर्मनस्याङ्गमेजयत्वश्वासप्रश्वासा विक्षेपसहभुवः॥३१॥

Duḥkhadaurmanasyāṅgamejayatvaśvāsapraśvāsā vikṣepasahabhuvaḥ

Anxiety, despair, unsteadiness of being, and irregular breathing all accompany these disturbances.

[I:32]

तत्प्रतिषेधार्थमेकतत्त्वाभ्यासः॥३२॥

Tatpratiṣedhārthamekatattvābhyāsaḥ

To counter these, practice should be centred around the only really pure ingredient.

[I:33]

मैत्रीकरुणामुदितोपेक्षाणां सुखदुःखपुण्यापुण्यविषयाणां भावनातश्चित्तप्रसादनम्॥३३॥

Maitrīkaruṇāmuditopekṣāṇāṁ sukhaduḥkhapuṇyāpuṇyaviṣayāṇāṁ bhāvanātaścittaprasādanam

The mind becomes purified by cultivating friendships with contented people, by being kind and compassionate to the sad and fearful, by being indifferent to the ill-intentioned, and by being accommodating to the well-meaning.

[I:34]

प्रच्छर्दनविधारणाभ्यां वा प्राणस्य॥३४॥

Pracchardanavidhāraṇābhyāṁ vā prāṇasya

This state can also be achieved by learning to exhale the breath and keep it still.

[I:35]

विषयवती वा प्रवृत्तिरुत्पन्ना मनसः स्थितिनिबन्धिनी॥३५॥

Viṣayavatī vā pravṛttirutpannā manasaḥ sthitinibandhinī

Steadiness of the mind also comes when higher states of awareness are made manifest.

[I:36]

विशोका वा ज्योतिष्मती॥३६॥

Viśokā vā jyotiṣmatī

Or—by seeing the mind as free from sorrow and full of light.

[I:37]

वीतरागविषयं वा चित्तम्॥३७॥

Vītarāgaviṣayaṁ vā cittam

Or—by making the mind one that is unattached to and unmoved by objects and circumstances.

[I:38]

स्वप्ननिद्राज्ञानालम्बनं वा॥३८॥

Svapnanidrājñānālambanaṁ vā

Or—also—by investigating the real nature of the dreaming and sleeping states.

[I:39]

यथाभिमतध्यानाद्वा॥३९॥

Yathābhimatadhyānādvā

Or—by meditation upon that which is desired.

[I:40]

परमाणुपरममहत्त्वान्तोऽस्य वशीकारः॥४०॥

Paramāṇuparamamahattvānto’sya vaśīkāraḥ

The power of such a one reaches from the very finest to the most incomprehensibly vast.

[I:41]

क्षीणवृत्तेरभिजातस्येव मणेर्ग्रहीतृग्रहणग्राह्येषु तत्स्थतदञ्जनता समापत्तिः॥४१॥

Kṣīṇavṛtterabhijātasyeva maṇergrahītṛgrahaṇagrāhyeṣu tatsthatadañjanatā samāpattiḥ

The truly contemplative mind is one in which the seer, the process of seeing, and the thing seen are indistinguishable. All its movements have ceased. It is transparent like a crystal. It simply reflects whatever is presented to it.

[I:42]

शब्दार्थज्ञानविकल्पैः सङ्कीर्णा सवितर्का समापत्तिः॥४२॥

Śabdārthajñānavikalpaiḥ saṅkīrṇā savitarkā samāpattiḥ

Such a state of realization is one of conjecture; the distinction between just knowing, knowledge based on words, and knowledge based on what has been heard is unclear.

[I:43]

स्मृतिपरिशुद्धौ स्वरूपशून्येवार्थमात्रनिर्भासा निर्वितर्का॥४३॥

Smṛtipariśuddhau svarūpaśūnyevārthamātranirbhāsā nirvitarkā

A realization of certainty is one where what has passed through the mind is seen in a completely pure way, and the mind becomes able to see the nature of all things as they really are, and shining with the light of their own reality.

[I:44]

एतयैव सविचारा निर्विचारा च सूक्ष्मविषया व्याख्याता॥४४॥

Etayaiva savicārā nirvicārā ca sūkṣmaviṣayā vyākhyātā

By means also of this other states of wisdom and higher wisdom—as well as the workings of the finest things—can be explained.

[I:45]

सूक्ष्मविषयत्वं चालिङ्गपर्यवसानम्॥४५॥

Sūkṣmaviṣayatvaṁ cāliṅgaparyavasānam

And the scope of this most subtle matter merges with the non-physical.

[I:46]

ता एव सबीजः समाधिः॥४६॥

Tā eva sabījaḥ samādhiḥ

All these states arise only by being implanted.

[I:47]

निर्विचारवैशारद्येऽध्यात्मप्रसादः॥४७॥

Nirvicāravaiśāradye’dhyātmaprasādaḥ

When the flow of consciousness or awareness become undisturbed and completely pure, then a light dawns that is inner.

[I:48]

ऋतम्भरा तत्र प्रज्ञा॥४८॥

Ṛtambharā tatra prajñā

All knowledge gained from such a state is further enlightening.

[I:49]

श्रुतानुमानप्रज्ञाभ्यामन्यविषया विशेषार्थत्वात्॥४९॥

Śrutānumānaprajñābhyāmanyaviṣayā viśeṣārthatvāt

Direct knowledge is different from knowledge gained by reasoning or by being told. These can only refer to limited things.

[I:50]

तज्जः संस्कारोऽन्यसंस्कारप्रतिबन्धी॥५०॥

Tajjaḥ saṁskāro’nyasaṁskārapratibandhī

Any impressions, perceptions or deep-seated drives produced from this state counter similar such impressions, perceptions or drives produced from any other state.

[I:51]

तस्यापि निरोधे सर्वनिरोधान्निर्बीजः समाधिः

Tasyāpi nirodhe sarvanirodhānnirbījaḥ samādhiḥ

When even this effort and desire to control or counter has itself been countered, like all others, then there comes that all-knowing wisdom which flowers without needing to be implanted.

इति पतञ्जलयोगसूत्रे समाधिपादः प्रथमः समाप्थः

iti patañjalayogasūtre samādhipādaḥ prathamaḥ samāptaḥ

Here lies Chapter 1, “On Bringing Into Harmony”,
in the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali

aum

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